Nibbling Around the Edges: China’s Geopolitical Trauma in the 20th Century

Page 8
(Footnotes on materials):

The details of the “Gan-Ning-Qing” diarchy and its drug traffic have been more than fully documented in an (unsourced but clearly academic research monograph entitled 民国时期甘宁青地区 的鸦片烟祸与政府对策研究 (http://wenku.baidu.com/view/f9832066caaedd3383c4d30f.html)

But a few numbers are still worth noting.

(1) Ningxia (by now a province), 1937 state-purchased opium:
(a) soft (semi-finished) resin 125,000 kg
(b) as hard resin opium 80,000 kg

Estimates of total land use and production
for 1934

Ningxia-Gansu together:
52,814 ha = +/- 800,000 mu used to produce
826,125 kg (27 million liang)

For comparison:
Manchukuo 530,000 kg
Yenan border/Shanxi-Suiyuan: 240,000-420,000 kg

Ningxia only (2010) total arable today = 12,750 hectares (24.6%) = 19 million mu
Est 1930s arable at 50% of today’s = 10 million mu
Production 373,625 kg = 12.2 million liang, using 19,927 ha = 300,000 mu: yield = 31 liang/mu
Opium planted % if assume 50% of land then as now = 3%.

Source 2:
1934
Gansu: 河西地区的16个县中,除鼎新县为禁绝区域外,其余15县
1934 Poppy-cult land 211,944 mu of 493,315 mu total prov arable = 43%
Ningxia:
19,927 ha = 300,000 mu
Gansu: = 212,000 mu 43% of usable land of 493,000 mu or 33,000 ha prov total arable 330 km 2 of 455 k km2 = =< 10% total prov land is arable thus (today) 4.3% total prov land in opium. 48.2 million liang = 2.43 million kg

Gansu features a land area of 455,000 sq km, including 4.54 million (68 mill mu = 45,400 km 2) ha of cultivated land at the end of 2004. In 2004, some 4,500 ha of wasteland were reclaimed, and about 153,800 hectares of farmland were converted for forestry and pasture.

For reference only:
(1957/1933 sample increase in provincial arable, million mu Huang, 327)

Shandong 139 v 120 15.8%
Hebei 132 v 118 11.9%

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