Was the 8th Route Army Underfed: the Base Area Peasantry Overtaxed? Some Numbers…

Page 8

Secret of the “359”nth success at Nanniwan:
Almost overnight construction of 窝棚 wopeng (“cattleshed”) barracks (the Nanniwan enclosure had been razed, and there were no peasant houses in which to billet the soldiers) – a building technique seemingly learned in the NW Hunan hillcountry, He Long’s birthplace

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So if He Long lent his support (via Xiao Ke and Wang Zhen) to the Nanniwan “model reclamation” campaign, he had good reason for doing so – viz. to create a “proxy” source of the added food supply that (probably) opium exports helped garner.

… Which doesn’t mean that the campaign had no other political significance.

***

How the opium planting guidelines worked (Xinzhou, Shanxi, 1947?)

Chen Yungfa’s accidently recovered fragmentary opium tax roster gives the following for a 10-household aggregate which may include an entire if small settlement.

Total land available for planting (all crops):
47.05 mu
(av. per household 4.7 mu)

Total planted with poppy:
8.05 mu (17% of total)

Residuum:
39.0 mu (+/- 4 mu/hh) = about 80 pct
“过了大年是春天,家家户户种洋烟。十亩地来八亩田,留下两亩种洋烟。”

Total opium product
+/- 140 liang

Average product grade: 5.4 (of 10)

liang = 31.5 grams or 50 gr. (at 10 or 16 “oz”/jin)
total product (unrefined) = 7 kg (with latter figure)

Total pro rata tax (liang)
33.10 liang = 24% (by weight)

Tax per mu in kind: (millet parity)
12.5%

So: by taking 8 mu out of grain production and into poppy/opium and leaving 39 (say, 40) mu in millet (as subsistence protection):

Est total production (1941/2) 12 million liang = ? = 600,000 kg =

Tax schedule:
《腰庄烟亩税册》显示,农户种鸦片5两以下免税。“忻州鸦片档案”中有一份《48年药税征收比例》,对中共鸦片税收政策作了清晰的说明。当年晋西北的鸦片税制是按累进税计税。
1、 一律按每户总产量计征。
2、 每户总产量在五两以下者免征。
3、 每户总产量满五两者征收百分之十。
4、 每户总产量在五两以上至十两者征收百分(之)十三。
5、 每户总产量在十两以上至十五两者征收百分之十六。
6、 每户总产量在十五两以上至二十两者征收百分之十九。
7、 每户总产量在二十两以上至二十五两者征收百分之二十三。
8、 每户总产量在二十五两以上至三十两者征收百分之二十六。
9、 每户总产量在三十两以上至三十五两者征收百分之二十九。
10、每户总产量在三十五两以上至四十两者征收百分之三十二。
11、每户总产量在四十两以上者均征百分之三十五不再累进。

from 10 to 35 pct on amounts over 5 liang = >250 gr

毛重29.6两,皮重13.8两,净重15.8两,6个烟,共25万8000元,买布世齐布6匹,地球布5匹,又零尺7.8尺,请照数查收为荷。烟站侯成明启(1948年)4月30日”。
Net 15.8 liang = 790 grams = 258,000 fabi (April 1948) = 5-6 bolts (yards) of cotton cloth

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